Acute arterial occlusions
ACUTE ARTERIAL OCCLUSIONS
The presence of acute arterial ischemia usually indicates the presence of an underlying pathology that has to be treated for complete recovery.
Cardio-arterial emboli arise from heart. They are seen in cases of
Arterio-arterial emboli arise from an atherosclerotic plaque with thrombosis.
Trauma can lead to intrinsic compression from spasm / contusion / laceration Or extrinsic compression with soft tissue swelling leading to acute compartmental syndrome
Acute thrombosis can occur following
Disruption of a plaque
Shock leading to hypoperfusion
Catheterization - Catheterization may damage the endothelium and initiate thrombosis or may dislodge an already formed thrombus.
Neoplasia - Neoplasia may occlude artery suddenly following malignant embolization or due to sudden bleed.
Site of occlusion
70% extremities, 10% cerebral, 5% visceral arteries
Effect on organs
Site Brain (MCA) - Hemiplegia / transient ischemic attack
Retina (Regional artery) -Amaurosis fugax
Mesenteric artery -Gangrene of the loop
Splenic artery -Infarct and pain
Kidney -Infarct, pain, hematuria
Lungs - Fatal pulmonary embolism
Extremities -Peripheral limb ischemia